Want to move to the Next Level? Try these…

Never allow your memories to be greater than your dreams

Always set new and higher goals

Rediscover your passion

Seek new challenges

Strive to overcome the enemy within – Fear

Determine to see results

Stop playing safe – Take bigger risks and make big plans

Be jolly – Laugh at your mistakes
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The Human Edge learning center, located at 10/12 Adenubi close off Toyin Street, Ikeja Lagos is now available to interested training facilitators and meeting organizers.

The Center is sited in a serene environment to avoid distractions and disturbances with a stand-by generator for uninterrupted power supply.

The training room which accommodates about 25-30 people is fully air-conditioned to achieve a conducive and comfortable environment for participants during training sections.

In addition, Training participants are at liberty to park their vehicles in an ample parking space with maximum security and convenience.

Other side attractions include; Flip chart for capturing information during training sessions, a Projector that projects training presentations and a dining facility during short breaks.

Human Resource Managers, Training facilitators and Meeting organizers can rent these facilities on a daily basis at affordable pricing.

For more information on these services, you can contact the Jumoke (Corporate affairs Manager) on 01-7403723.

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An early morning fire on Tuesday, March 15 2011, razed the store house of The Ivy College’s boy’s hostel, at 4, Owodunni Street, Off Toyin Street Ikeja Lagos, destroying materials kept in the store like bed, chairs and files.

It was gathered that the fire started at about 1a.m. as a result of a high current when the PHCN restored the light. The fire spread fast to the entire flat of the storehouse. Checks revealed that the students were fast asleep in another flat of the same building.

The students expressed fears that the enormity of the damage incurred may affect their accommodation and welfare in the hostel.

None of the management staff of the company was available to comment on the fire incident, though some of the security men briefed a correspondent who was at the scene of the incident.

People in the neighborhood were at the scene to help put out the flame. Men of the Lagos State Fire and Safety Services later arrived the scene and succeeded in putting out the fire after 2 hours of battling to control it.

At the time of filing this report, the workers at the hostel were cleaning the store-house while the students were seen fetching water for Omotayo Hospital adjacent to the hostel, getting ready for the days activities.

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A five-storey building under construction in Ikeja, Lagos state collapsed on Sunday at around 4pm. The building, which collapsed around 4:00 p.m. on Sunday, trapped eight workers in which seven people were rescued by neighbors and co-workers on Sunday and one trapped in the rubbles of the collapsed building as at Monday morning.

The remaining trapped construction worker, Francis, was on Monday finally rescued from the rubble of the collapsed building at Adenubi Close, Ikeja, Lagos at around 3:40pm.

Speaking to one of the Engineers at the site, he said the collapse was due to structural deficiency. He said that the foundation of the building was faulty, noting that instead of using 20mm rods, the builders used rods of inferior quality.

“The irons they used are not the one expected for such an edifice. They cannot stand the weight of the building. They used 15mm rods and not 20mm that is expected of such a big building. As a rule, 15mm rods are supposed to be used when you reach second to third storey,” the building engineer said.

It is certain what caused the incident, although collapses such as these have in the past been blamed on poor building standards and low construction material quality. The building according to the neighbors said the five-storey building was built in a rush under 3 months which is another vital factor to why such buildings collapse.

The frequent use of substandard materials and violation of building regulations mean building collapses are relatively common in Nigeria. Building collapses are not unheard of in Nigeria: In 2006, 28 died after a building, with a restaurant and shops, collapsed in Lagos. In July of last year, three people were killed when another four-storey building came down in Abuja, the capital of the country.

On hand to rescue Francis, the trapped worker, were officials of Lagos State Emergency Management Agency; its federal counterpart, National Emergency Management Agency; Lagos State Ambulance Service; Lagos State Physical Planning and Urban Development Authority; Police; and fire service among others.

It was reported that the trapped worker was communicating with them with a Delser process, a search and rescue device which identifies the location of the trapped victim.

Speaking to a security officer of Human Edge Limited, an organization on the same street by the name Stanley, who was there when the incident happened on Sunday, said “when I heard the loud noise, I thought it was another bomb explosion. But after some minutes, along with my colleague on duty yesterday we ran to the direction of the building and discovered that it had collapsed. “It happened on Sunday when workers are usually not at the site to work, and so not many people were in danger”, he added.

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Code of Ethics - Image by Google

Firstly, there is a need to highlight the code of ethics of Journalism in Nigeria.  The Code of ethics is a collective effort of Nigerian journalists represented by the Nigeria Press Organization (NPO) and the Nigerian Press Council (NPC).It thus reads;

Decisions concerning the content of news should be the responsibility of a professional journalist.


i.The Public has a right to know. Factual accurate, balanced and fair reporting is the ultimate objective of good journalism and the basis of earning public trust and confidence.
ii.A journalist should refrain from publishing inaccurate and misleading information. Where such information has been inadvertently published, prompt correction should be made. A journalist must hold the right of reply as a cardinal rule of practice.
iii.In the course of his duties, a journalist should strive to separate facts from conjecture and comment.

As a general rule, a journalist should respect the privacy of individuals and their families unless it affects public interest.

A. Information on the private life of an individual or his family should only be published if it impinges on public interest.
B.Publishing of such information about an individual as mentioned above should be deemed justifiable only if it is directly at:
i.Exposing crime or serious misdemeanour;
ii.Exposing anti-social conduct;
iii.Protecting public health, morality and safety;
iv.Preventing the public from being misled by some statement or action of the individual concerned.

i.A journalist should observe the universally accepted principle of confidentiality and should not disclose the source of information obtained in confidence.
ii.A journalist should not breach an agreement with a source of information obtained as “off the record” or as “back ground information”

i.A journalist should dress and comport himself in a manner that conforms with public taste.
ii.A journalist should refrain from using offensive, abusive, or vulgar language.
iii.A journalist should not present lurid details, either in words or picture, of violence, sexual acts, abhorrent or horrid scenes.
iv.In cases involved in personal grief or shock, enquiries should be carried out and approaches made with sympathy and discretion.
v.Unless it is in the furtherance of the public’s right to know, a journalist should generally avoid identifying relatives or friends of persons convicted or accused of crime.
A journalist should refrain from making pejorative reference to a person’s ethnic group, religion, sex, or to any physical or mental illness or handicap.

i. A journalist should neither solicit nor accept bribe, gratification or patronage to suppress or publish information.

ii.To determine payment for publication of news is inimical to the notion of news as fair, accurate, unbiased and factual report of an event.
A journalist should not present or report acts of violence, armed robberies, terrorist activities or vulgar display of wealth in a manner that glorifies such act in the eyes of the public.

A journalist should not identify, either by name or picture, or interview children under the age of 16 who are involved in cases concerning sexual offences, crimes and rituals or witchcraft either as victims, witnesses or defendants.

A journalist should strive to employ open and honest mans in the gathering of information.
Exceptional methods may be employed only when the public interest is at stake.

A journalist should strive to enhance national unity and public good.

A journalist should promote universal principles of human rights, democracy, justice, equity, peace and international understanding.

A journalist should not copy, wholesale, or in part, other people’s work without attribution and/or consent.

i. Where a journalist reproduces a work, be it in print, broadcast, art work or design, proper acknowledgement should be accorded to the author.
ii. A journalist should abide by all rules of copyright, established by national and international laws and conventions.

A journalist should strive at all times to enhance press freedom and responsibility.

Having highlighted the ethics and examined the Nigerian Journalist, the ethics are not totally obeyed by them. The issues have however been a concern based on the ethics meant to be followed by journalists in Nigeria.

Firstly, Editorial Independence most of the times is subjected to negative ownership. Most media organizations in Nigeria are not being independent of their publications due to the fact that these media houses are privately owned by important personalities in the society. This Owners control what should be heard or read by the citizens. A good example is that of President Olusegun Obasanjo, being a Southerner, has benefited from the “soft touch” of the predominant media in Nigeria. In the “Speaker-gate” scandal that involved Alhaji Salihu Buhari, the first Speaker of the House of Representatives in the Obasanjo Presidency, the North/South perspective of the Nigeria media was manifest. The News, a southern-based news-magazine, which first reported the fact that Salisu Buhari had forged his age and educational qualifications to clinch the exalted position, pursued the allegations until Buhari was forced to resign, and was subsequently tried and convicted for perjury.

Most media organizations support the religion or ethnicity of the owners of the media houses. Notable examples of these are the census controversies of 1962 and 1973, the Daboh-Tarka affair. The North/South divide in Nigerian politics is so deep that public policy defers to it, and mass media outfits skew their reports and analyses to accommodate the interests of its adherents. Also the idea of giving out brown envelopes to journalist by politicians is very imminent in the Nigerian Media. The integrity of Journalists has been bought by the bribes and incentives of politicians and people in power. Monetary bribes and other gifts tie the hands of journalist who then become incapable of being objective in reporting events and issues involving people who give the gifts. Also, some publishers are in the habit of getting contracts from the government, such publishers always try to discourage their newspapers and magazine from publishing stones hat are critical of the government.

Although the media sometimes provide information to citizens but in most cases it is never done, rather they hoard information at times for security and if they have been bribed to keep the information. For instance, the government’s poor record of accountability amongst public officers between 1986 and 1993 was evident among others at the National Electoral Commission (NEC), the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA), the Nigeria Telecommunications (NITEL) Plc, and the Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), but which was reported only after the demise of the Babangida administration (See African Guardian, 1 November 1993; The

Guardian, 18 October 1993; Newswatch, 29 October 1993; The Guardian, 13 October 1993; 6 November 1993; and African Concord, 7 March 1994). This implies that the problem of lack of exposure during life of an administration is not for want of evidence and the necessary information.

It is said that a public officer has no private life. This may well be so, but even here public interest draws the line. It is not everything we know about the private life of a public officer that is publishable. Convention imposes on us the obligation to protect the integrity of a public officer under certain circumstances.

When the press makes statement that damages a person’s reputation, the press is guilty of character assassination. An example of character assassination was late Ohonbamu’s accusation of the former Head of State, late Murtala Muhammed of corruption and acquisition of ill-gotten wealth. Ohonbamu, a Senior lecturer in Law at the University of Lagos and also the publisher of African Spark magazine published the allegation in hismagazine. He was charged to court and towards the end of the trial he pleaded guilty. Also, the recent statement credited to Dr. Gbenga Obasnjo published by The News magazine accusing Vice President Abubakar Atiku of corruption is another case of character assassination. Whereas there is no legal punishment for sycophancy, character assassination is both unethical and illegal, a journalist could face court action for defamation or damaging somebody’s reputation.

Ethics are important because they prescribe acceptable codes of professional behaviour. But in itself, an ethic code of conduct can of itself do nothing. The responsibility for serving the public rests squarely on individual reporters and their editors. As I see it, the challenge facing us has less to do with our failure to abide by the ethics of the profession. The challenge is to do a good job of informing and educating the Nigeria public. To do this, we must commit ourselves to two fundamental objectives.

  • Firstly, we must be better informed than the public we seek to serve. An uninformed or a poorly-informed reporter is a dangerous creature let loose on the land.
  • Secondly, we must sharpen our editorial judgement. Good editorial judgment is a function of both experience and broad-mindedness. The rush to publish has left a lot to be desired in our editorial judgement. We need to hasten slowly because what is published can never be unpublished.

In the words of Risley (2001) when a journalist is confronted with ethical problems he or she should consider the following principles.

  • When there are two extreme positions in a situation, he or she should seek the middle ground known by Aristotle as the “Golden mean”.
  • Act only as you would wish others would act.
  • Consider the utilitarianism of our actions, that is, our action should produce the greatest balance of good over evil.
  • Apply the veil of ignorance, that is, make ethical decisions as if you are equal with all members of the society and lastly treat people in the same way you would expect to be treated.


v  Risely, Ford (2001) “Ethics” in Harpler Christopher and the Indiana group (eds) Journalism 2000 Madison, Course wise.

v  Akinfeleye, Ralph (2003), Fourth Estate of the Realm or Fourth Estate of the Wreck: Imperative of Social Responsibility of the press, Lagos press pp 63-64



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Convergence is a very polysemous (several meanings for a word) concept that has been used to describe various trends in journalism that have something in common: the blurring of the limits between different media, professional skills and roles strategies (Dupagne and Garrison, 2006; Silcock and Keith, 2006).

However in communication terms, Convergence is a coming together of two or more distinct entities or phenomena, thereby removing entry barriers across the IT, telecoms, media and consumer electronics industries. It is increasingly common in the IT world; in this context the term refers to the combination of two or more different technologies in a single device. For instance, taking pictures with a cell phone and surfing the Web on a television are two of the most common examples of this trend, and also the recent innovation of an I-phone being used to shoot a video film in Japan.

Convergence, simply put, is how individual consumers interact with others on a social level and use various media platforms to create new experiences, new forms of media and content that connect us socially, and not just to other consumers, but to the corporate producers of media in ways that have not been as readily accessible in the past.


Media Convergence

Media convergence is an economic strategy in which communications companies seek financial benefit by making the various media properties they own work together. The strategy is a product of three elements:

  • corporate concentration, whereby fewer large companies own more and more media properties;
  • digitization, whereby media content produced in a universal computer language can be easily adapted for use in any medium; and
  • government deregulation, which has increasingly allowed media conglomerates to own different kinds of media (e.g., television and radio stations and newspapers) in the same markets, and which has permitted content carriage companies (e.g., cable TV suppliers) to own content producers (e.g., specialty TV channels).

According to Dupagne and Garrison (2006); Silcock and Keith (2006), the common ground for any process labeled as media convergence is the blurring of the limits between different media –professional skills, formats, production strategies. Deuze (2004) then adds another similar trend: the blurring between the roles of producer and consumer. Thus, they proposed to analytically structure convergence into four dimensions that cover different phases of the communication process:

  • Integrated production – Content
  • Multi-skilled professionals – Source
  • Multiplatform delivery – Medium
  • Active audience – Receiver

Any of these dimensions of convergence can be developed in the media on its own, but in many cases, they are part of the same convergent project, which is to pass messages through a particular platform.


Following the above proposition of the four major dimensions that cover Media Convergence, having examined the Nigerian Media system, no media organization fall totally into these dimensions.

In the first dimension which has to do with Integrated Production, the most relevant signs of convergence are to be found in the reformation of newsrooms which is also linked to the redefinition of professional roles, technical innovation and the development of innovative news formats and languages.

In Nigeria today, most reporters, photojournalist, video-journalism, editors, etc submit their stories, photos or videos through the internet or their mobile phone. Unlike in the last decade when editors and reporters work from personal offices/ independent newsrooms which sometimes delay the production of news-stories. They collaborate more and develop forms of integration of all the journalists into one newsroom, in which at the end of the day produces the content for different outlets at the same time.

Digitization of the production processes has been the technological innovation that has supported newsroom integration in most media houses across the nation.

Using the convergence of the multi-skilled professionals to examine the Nigerian media, it can be observed that Nigerian journalist are not only trained to report news stories but also to report the audios, photos and videos of the event using their mobile phones or devices. Various workshops have been organized to train journalist to be skilled and professionally inclined with today’s technology.

The ideal Multi-skilled journalist, as some authors have suggested to label them (Bromley, 1997) would be able to produce news for any medium using any technological tool needed in every step of the process. This strategy allows companies to reduce labour, administrative and material costs, to use the same media content across several media outlets, to attract increased advertising by providing advertisers with package deals and one-stop shopping for a number of media platforms, and to increase brand recognition and brand loyalty among audiences through cross-promotion and cross-selling.

Multi-Platform Delivery of content has been the dimension of convergence that more visibly has developed in recent years, even though journalism research has seldom paid attention to the implications of this trend. The maturity of the Internet and mobile communications, as well as the data-enabled digital television systems have broaden the range of options for the citizens to access the news.

Broadcasting has increasingly been replaced by the Internet, enabling consumers all over the world the freedom to access their preferred media content more easily and at a more available rate than ever before. Many Nigerians can now access news information from their mobile phones, or internet, especially with the advent of social networks like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn abd blog sites such as Naira land. It has been observed that newspaper organisations have adopted the means of internet to publish their stories. Examples like The Punch (www.punchng.com), The Guardian (www.ngrguardiannews.com), The Sun News (www.sunnewsonline.com), Thisday (www.thisdaylive.com), The Nation (www.thenationliveng.net), etc.

Even radio stations like Radio Nigerian (), Freedom Radio (www.freedomradionig.com), Radio Lagos(www.radiolagosekofm.net), Classic FM (www.classic97.net), Brilla FM (www.brilafm.net), etc cannot but allow their presence to be felt worldwide prior to media convergence in Nigeria and Digitization.

Current media trends do not only seem to blur the differences among the media, but also the distance between producers and audiences (Jenkins, 2004). The origin of this redefinition of the relationship between journalists and citizens can be found in the qualitative changes in the audience habits and attitudes (Livingstone, 1999), namely fragmentation, specialization and active participation. Digital distribution technologies allow for the customization of content and ease the production of news that is highly targeted to specific niche audiences (Tewksbury, 2005). But it is active participation what may have a greater influence in the redefinition of professional journalism.

For the Nigerian journalist, the mobile phone keeps him in close contact with news sources. Besides, most journalists now have in their possession multimedia devices that enable them to take instant photographs, record interviews and keeps them connected to the internet. Other professionals also have leveraged on the importance of mobile phone

Blogs, wikis and other self-publishing tools have eased the ability of the netizens to produce their own content and potentially reach a global audience. Nowadays, everyone is a journalist due to the fact that there are forums in which the right thinking members of the society (non-journalist) can contribute to the comment/issues facing the society. In print publications, the citizens are given a separate page to publish their opinions about issues that affect them in their immediate society. The Broadcast media also has audience participation programs like One-on-One (NTA), Moments with MO, Inside out with Agatha, Tom- Tom road show on Inspiration FM, etc.

Below is a representation of the Media Convergence in Nigeria.


Radio Stations Television Stations Online Radio Satellite Others Social Networks
Silverbird Group Rhythm FM Silverbird Television STV online Silverbird Television Mall and Cinema Twitter, Facebook
DAAR Communications Raypower AIT AIT online DaarSat and AIT (DSTV) Same as above
Continent Radio Continental Television  Continental TVC online Nil Nil Same as above
Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation Radio Nigeria Nigerian  Television Authority NTA online NTA 1 Same as above
Lagos state Broadcasting Corporation Radio Lagos (Yoruba) and Eko FM (English) Lagos Television (LTV) Radio online , Eko89.75fm online and LTV online LTV Same as above
Channels Nil Channels TV Channels (audio and Video) Channels TV Mobile Same as above
Brila Broadcasting Services Brila FM Nil Brila FM online Nil Same as above
DBN Limited Nil DBN TV Nil Same as above
Galaxy Galaxy TV online Nil Same as above
MITV MITV Same as above


Print Publications Online Publications Mobile Publications
Punch Present Present Present
P.M News P.M News Present
The Nation The Nation Present Present
Sun Sun Present
Thisday Thisday Present
Vanguard Vanguard Present Present
Nigerian Tribune Nigerian Tribune Tribune online
Genevieve Magazine Genevieve Magazine Genevieve magazine online
News watch News watch Present
Tell Magazine Tell Magazine Present
Financial Standard Financial Standard Present
Business Day Business Day Present
Guardian Guardian Guardian
Daily Trust Daily Trust Daily Trust online


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Badagry Expressway Bridge: Julius Berger causes chaos.

Julius Berger Officials by a truck under the Mile 2 bridge - Image by Elle Phree

Despite all attempts made by the Federal Road Safety Officials and traffic wardens to control the traffic at the Mile 2 to Badagry overhead bridge in the early hours of Wednesday, there seemed to be congestion around the metropolitan area.

The traffic jam was attributed to the ongoing reconstruction and expansion of the Badagry expressway by Julius Berger Nigeria Limited.

Speaking to a reliable source, a regular commuter on that route, she said the experience has been a habitual one since the inception of the reconstruction exercise in April 2009, especially for road users through the Orile to Eric Moore axis.

However, concrete-pillars have been erected to support the bridge while there is still much to do to the pedestrian road.

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